1) To present, within the most accepted theories about prenatal craniofacial growth and development, the time and mechanism of formation and coalescence of facial processes with emphasis on discussions about the mechanisms of formation of the middle third of the face;
2) To analyze, based on the current literature, the genetic and environmentalfactors involved in the occurrence of orofacial clefts. Especially highlighting candidate genes and their relationship with possible environmental factors in the etiology of craniofacial malformations. In addition, it aims to discuss current epidemiological data on cleft lip and palate;
3) Offer knowledge that allows the graduate student to have a competent analysis of the different factors that contribute to the occurrence of malformations and the discussion about the possibilities of preventive action.
Knowledge of the embryological, etiological and epidemiological aspects related to orofacial clefts is essential in the different areas of study for these malformations, especially considering population variations and preventive surveillance programs.
Knowledge about the embryology of the face is essential for a correct understanding of the biological and molecular mechanisms that can lead to the occurrence of cleft and for the discussion of the etiological factors that surround this anomaly.
The discipline must be considered as a prerequisite for the study of orofacial cleft and their effects in any context of the rehabilitation process.
• Craniofacial development in the embryonic and fetal period – with emphasis on the development of the middle third of the face
• Mandibular and maxillary formation
• Deficiency in coalescence and / or fusion of embryonic facial processes
• Deficiency in coalescence and / or fusion of palatal processes
• Discussion of the “classification of cleft lip and palate” based on embryology
• Concepts and principles of epidemiology
• The main records of congenital anomalies and their effectiveness
• Incidence and prevalence of malformations in the population
• Etiology of clefts: Syndromic and non-syndromic
• Genetic factors in the etiology of orofacial clefts
• Environmental factors in the etiology of orofacial clefts (teratogenesis)
• Prevention of craniofacial malformations
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